**Thermal Physics Notes**

In these “* Thermal Physics Notes PDF*”, you will study the relationship between the macroscopic properties of physical systems in equilibrium. It reviews the concepts of thermodynamics learnt at school from a more advanced perspective and develops them further. The primary goal is to understand the fundamental laws of thermodynamics and their applications to various systems and processes. In addition, it will also give exposure to students about the Kinetic theory of gases, transport phenomena involved in ideal gases, phase transitions and behavior of real gases.

The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:

**Zeroth and First Law of Thermodynamics: **Extensive and intensive Thermodynamic Variables, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics & Concept of Temperature, Concept of Work & Heat, State Functions, First Law of Thermodynamics and its differential form, Internal Energy, First Law & various processes, Applications of First Law: General Relation between CP and CV, Work Done during Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes, Compressibility and Expansion Co-efficient.

**Second Law of Thermodynamics: **Reversible and Irreversible process with examples. Conversion of Work into Heat and Heat into Work. Heat Engines. Carnot‟s Cycle, Carnot engine & efficiency. Refrigerator & coefficient of performance, 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius Statements and their Equivalence. Carnot‟s Theorem. Applications of Second Law of Thermodynamics: Thermodynamic Scale of Temperature and its Equivalence to Perfect Gas Scale.

**Entropy: **Concept of Entropy, Clausius Theorem. Clausius Inequality, Second Law of Thermodynamics in terms of Entropy. Entropy of a perfect gas. Principle of Increase of Entropy. Entropy Changes in Reversible and Irreversible processes with examples. Entropy of the Universe. Entropy Changes in Reversible and Irreversible Processes. Principle of Increase of Entropy. Temperature–Entropy diagrams for Carnot’s Cycle. Third Law of Thermodynamics. Unattainability of Absolute Zero.

**Thermodynamic Potentials: **Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Helmholtz Free Energy, Gibb‟s Free Energy. Their Definitions, Properties and Applications. Magnetic Work, Cooling due to adiabatic demagnetization, First and second order Phase Transitions with examples, Clausius Clapeyron Equation and Ehrenfest equations.

**Maxwell’s Thermodynamic Relations**: Derivation of Maxwell‟s thermodynamic Relations and their applications, Maxwell’s Relations:(1) Clausius Clapeyron equation, (2) Value of Cp-Cv, (3) Tds Equations, (4) Energy equations.

**Kinetic Theory of Gases Distribution of Velocities: **Maxwell-Boltzmann Law of Distribution of Velocities in an Ideal Gas and its Experimental Verification. Mean, RMS and Most Probable Speeds. Degrees of Freedom. Law of Equipartition of Energy (No proof required). Specific heats of Gases.

**Molecular Collisions: **Mean Free Path. Collision Probability. Estimation of Mean Free Path. Transport Phenomenon in Ideal Gases: (1) Viscosity, (2) Thermal Conductivity and (3) Diffusion. Brownian Motion and its Significance.

**Real Gases: **Behavior of Real Gases: Deviations from the Ideal Gas Equation. Andrew‟s Experiments on CO2 Gas. Virial Equation. Critical Constants. Continuity of Liquid and Gaseous State. Vapour and Gas. Boyle Temperature. van der Waal‟s Equation of State for Real Gases. Values of Critical Constants. Law of Corresponding States. Comparison with Experimental Curves.p-V Diagrams. Free Adiabatic Expansion of a Perfect Gas. Joule Thomson Porous Plug Experiment. Joule-Thomson Effect for Real and vander Waal Gases. Temperature of Inversion. Joule-Thomson Cooling.

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