**Digital Systems and Applications Notes**

In these “* Digital Systems and Applications Notes PDF*”, you will study the concept of Boolean algebra and the basic digital electronics. In this course, students will be able to understand the working principle of CRO, Data processing circuits, Arithmetic Circuits, sequential circuits like registers, counters etc. based on flip flops. In addition, students will get an overview of microprocessor architecture and programming.

The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:

**Introduction to CRO: **Block Diagram of CRO. Electron Gun, Deflection System and Time Base. Deflection Sensitivity. Applications of CRO: (1) Study of Waveform, (2) Measurement of Voltage, Current, Frequency, and Phase Difference.

**Digital Circuits: **Difference between Analog and Digital Circuits, Examples of linear and digital ICs, Binary Numbers, Decimal to Binary and Binary to Decimal Conversion, BCD, Octal and Hexadecimal numbers, AND, OR and NOT Gates (realisation using Diodes and Transistor), NAND and NOR Gates as Universal Gates, XOR and XNOR Gates and application as Parity Checkers.

**Boolean algebra: **De Morgan’s Theorems, Boolean Laws, Simplification of Logic Circuit using Boolean Algebra, Fundamental Products, Idea of Minterms and Maxterms, Conversion of Truth table into Equivalent Logic Circuit by (1) Sum of Products Method and (2) Karnaugh Map.

**Data processing circuits: **Multiplexers, De-multiplexers, Decoders, Encoders.

**Arithmetic Circuits: **Binary Addition. Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement, Half and Full Adders, Half & Full Subtractors, 4-bit binary Adder/Subtractor.

**Sequential Circuits: **SR, D, and JK Flip-Flops. Clocked (Level and Edge Triggered) Flip-Flops. Preset and Clear operations. Race-around conditions in JK Flip-Flop. M/S JK Flip Flop.

**Timers: **IC 555 block diagram and applications: Astable multivibrator and Monostable multivibrator.

**Shift registers: **Serial-in-Serial-out, Serial-in-Parallel-out, Parallel-in-Serial-out and Parallel-in- Parallel-out Shift Registers (only up to 4 bits).

**Counters (4 bits): **Ring Counter. Asynchronous counters, Decade Counter. Synchronous Counter.

**Computer Organization: **Input/Output Devices. Data storage (idea of RAM and ROM). Computer memory. Memory organization and addressing. Memory Interfacing. Memory Map.

**Intel 8085 Microprocessor Architecture: **Main features of 8085. Block diagram. Components. Pin-out diagram. Buses. Registers. ALU. Memory. Stack memory. Timing and Control circuitry. Timing states. Instruction cycle, Timing diagram of MOV and MVI.

**Introduction to Assembly Language: **1 byte, 2 byte and 3 byte instructions.

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