In these “Medical PhysicsNotes PDF”, you will study the basics of Medical Physics.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
PHYSICS OF THE BODY-I: Basic Anatomical Terminology: Standard Anatomical Position, Planes. Familiarity with terms like- Superior, Inferior, Anterior, Posterior, Medial, Lateral, Proximal and Distal. Mechanics of the body: Skeleton, forces, and body stability. Muscles and dynamics of body movement. Physics of Locomotors Systems: joints and movements, Stability and Equilibrium. Energy household of the body: Energy balance in the body, Energy consumption of the body, Heat losses of the body, Thermal Regulation. Other Systems in the body: Pressure system of body. Physics of breathing, Physics of cardiovascular system.
PHYSICS OF THE BODY-II: Acoustics of the body: Nature and characteristics of sound, Production of speech, Physics of the ear, Diagnostics with sound and ultrasound. Optical system of the body: Physics of the eye. Electrical system of the body: Physics of the nervous system, Electrical signals and information transfer.
PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC SYSTEMS-I: X-Rays: Electromagnetic spectrum, production of x-rays, x-ray spectra, Brehmsstrahlung, Characteristic x-ray. X-ray tubes & types: Coolidge tube, x-ray tube design, tube cooling stationary mode, Rotating anode x-ray tube, Tube rating, quality and intensity of x-ray. X-ray generator circuits, half wave and full wave rectification, filament circuit, kilo voltage circuit. Single and three phase electric supply. Power ratings. Types of X-Ray Generator, high frequency generator, exposure timers and switches, HT cables.
Radiation Physics: Radiation units exposure, absorbed dose, units: rad, gray, relative biological effectiveness, effective dose- Rem & Sievert, inverse square law. Interaction of radiation with matter Compton & photoelectric effect, linear attenuation coefficient. Radiation Detectors: ionization (Thimble chamber, condenser chamber), chamber. Geiger Muller counter, Scintillation counters and Solid-State detectors, TFT.
MEDICAL IMAGING PHYSICS: Evolution of Medical Imaging, X-ray diagnostics and imaging, Physics of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), NMR imaging, MRI Radiological imaging, Ultrasound imaging, Physics of Doppler with applications and modes, Vascular Doppler. Radiography: Filters, grids, cassette, X-ray film, film processing, fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scanner- principle and function, display, generations, mammography. Thyroid uptake system and Gamma camera (Only Principle, function and display).
RADIATION ONCOLOGY PHYSICS: External Beam Therapy (Basic Idea): Telecobalt,Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT), 3DCRT, IMRT, Image Guided Radiotherapy, EPID, Rapid Arc, Proton Therapy, Gamma Knife, Cyber Knife. Contact Beam Therapy (Basic Idea): Brachytherapy- LDR and HDR, Intra Operative Brachytherapy. Radiotherapy, kilo voltage machines, deep therapy machines, Telecobalt machines, Medical linear accelerator. Basics of Teletherapy units, deep X-ray, Telecobalt units, Radiation protection, external beam characteristics, dose maximum and build up – bolus, percentage depth dose, tissue maximum ratio and tissue phantom ratio, Planned target Volume and Gross Tumour Volume.
RADIATION AND RADIATION PROTECTION: Principles of radiation protection, protective materials-radiation effects, somatic, genetic stochastic and deterministic effect. Personal monitoring devices: TLD film badge, pocket dosimeter, OSL dosimeter. Radiation dosimeter. Natural radioactivity, Biological effects of radiation, Radiation monitors. Steps to reduce radiation to Patient, Staff and Public. Dose Limits for Occupational workers and Public. AERB: Existence and Purpose.
PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC SYSTEMS-II: Diagnostic nuclear medicine: Radiopharmaceuticals for radioisotope imaging, Radioisotope imaging equipment, Single photon and positron emission tomography. Therapeutic nuclear medicine: Interaction between radiation and matter Dose and isodose in radiation treatment. Medical Instrumentation: Basic Ideas of Endoscope and Cautery, Sleep Apnea and Cpap Machines, Ventilator and its modes.
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