**Mechanics Notes**

In these “* Mechanics Notes PDF*”, you will study the concepts of mechanics learnt at school from a more advanced perspective and goes on to build new concepts. It begins with Newton’s Laws of Motion and ends with the Fictitious Forces and Special Theory of Relativity. Students will also appreciate the Collisions in CM Frame, Gravitation, Rotational Motion and Oscillations.

The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:

**Fundamentals of Dynamics: **Reference frames, Inertial frames, Galilean transformations, Galilean invariance, Review of Newton’s Laws of Motion. Momentum of variable mass system: motion of rocket. Dynamics of a system of particles. Principle of conservation of momentum. Impulse. Determination of Centre of Mass of discrete and continuous objects having cylindrical and spherical symmetry (1-D, 2-D & 3-D).

**Work and Energy: **Work and Kinetic Energy Theorem. Conservative and non-conservative forces. Potential Energy. Energy diagram. Stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium. Force as gradient of potential energy. Work & Potential energy. Work done by non-conservative forces. Law of conservation of Energy.

**Collisions: **Elastic (1-D and 2-D) and inelastic collisions. Centre of Mass and Laboratory frames.

**Rotational Dynamics: **Angular momentum of a particle and system of particles. Torque. Principle of conservation of angular momentum. Rotation about a fixed axis. Moment of inertia, theorem of parallel and perpendicular axes. Determination of moment of inertia of discrete and continuous objects [1-D, 2-D & 3-D (rectangular, cylindrical and spherical)]. Kinetic energy of rotation. Motion involving both translation and rotation.

**Gravitation and Central Force Motion: **Law of gravitation. Gravitational potential energy. Inertial and gravitational mass. Potential and field due to spherical shell and solid sphere.

**Motion of a particle under a central force field: **Two-body problem, its reduction to one body problem and its solution. Reduction of angular momentum, kinetic energy and total energy. The energy equation and energy diagram. Kepler’s Laws. Satellite in circular orbit, Geosynchronous orbits.

**Oscillations: **Idea of SHM. Differential equation of SHM and its solution. Kinetic energy, potential energy, total energy and their time-average values. Compound pendulum. Damped oscillation. Forced oscillations: Transient and steady states, sharpness of resonance and Quality Factor.

**Non-Inertial Systems: **Non-inertial frames and fictitious forces. Uniformly rotating frame. Centrifugal force. Coriolis force and its applications**. **

**Special Theory of Relativity: **Outcomes of Michelson-Morley Experiment. Postulates of Special Theory of Relativity. Lorentz Transformations. Simultaneity, Length contraction, Time dilation. Relativistic transformation of velocity, acceleration, frequency and wave number. Mass of relativistic particle. Mass-less Particles. Mass-energy Equivalence. Relativistic Doppler effect (transverse and longitudinal). Relativistic Kinematics (decay problems, inelastic collisions and Compton effect). Transformation of Energy and Momentum.

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