Nuclear and Particle Physics Notes
Topics in our Nuclear and Particle Physics Notes PDF
In these “Nuclear and Particle Physics Notes PDF”, you will study the sub atomic particles and their properties. It will emphasize to gain knowledge about the different nuclear techniques and their applications in different branches Physics and societal application. The course will focus on the developments of problem based skills.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
General Properties of Nuclei: Constituents of nucleus and their Intrinsic properties, quantitative facts about mass, radii, charge density, matter density (experimental determination of each), binding energy, average binding energy and its variation with mass number, main features of binding energy versus mass number curve, N/Z plot, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment, electric moments.
Nuclear Models: Liquid drop model approach, semi empirical mass formula and significance of its various terms, condition of nuclear stability, nucleon separation energies (up to two nucleons), Fermi gas model (degenerate fermion gas, nuclear symmetry potential in Fermi gas), evidence for nuclear shell structure and the basic assumptions of shell model.
Radioactivity decay: Decay rate and equilibrium (Secular and Transient) (a) Alpha decay: basics of α-decay processes, theory of α-emission, Gamow factor, Geiger Nuttall law, α-decay spectroscopy, decay Chains. (b) β- decay: energy kinematics for β-decay, β-spectrum, positron emission, electron capture, neutrino hypothesis. (c) Gamma decay: Gamma rays emission from the excited state of the nucleus & kinematics, internal conversion.
Nuclear Reactions: Types of Reactions, units of related physical quantities, Conservation Laws, kinematics of reactions, Q-value, reaction rate, reaction cross section, Concept of compound and direct reaction, resonance reaction, Coulomb scattering (Rutherford scattering).
Interaction of Nuclear Radiation with matter: Energy loss due to ionization (Bethe-Block formula), energy loss of electrons, Cerenkov radiation. Gamma ray interaction through matter (photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, pair production), neutron interaction with matter.
Detector for Nuclear Radiations: Gas detectors: estimation of electric field, mobility of particle for ionization chamber and GM Counter. Basic principle of Scintillation Detectors and construction of photo-multiplier tube (PMT). Semiconductor Detectors (Si and Ge) for charge particle and photon detection (concept of charge carrier and mobility), neutron detector.
Particle Accelerators: Accelerator facility available in India: Van-de Graaff generator (Tandem accelerator), Linear accelerator, Cyclotron, Synchrotrons (Principal, construction, working, advantages and disadvantages).
Particle physics: Particle interactions (concept of different types of forces), basic features, Cosmic Rays, types of particles and its families, Conservation Laws (energy and momentum, angular momentum, parity, baryon number, Lepton number, Isospin, Strangeness) concept of quark model, color quantum number and gluons.
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