**Astronomy and Astrophysics Notes PDF**

In these “** Astronomy and Astrophysics Notes PDF**”, we will study the basic knowledge about the theory and techniques of observational astronomy and physics of the astrophysical phenomenon. It applies theoretical concepts and mathematical techniques students have learnt in their earlier courses to the astronomical and astrophysical phenomenon.

We have provided multiple complete Astronomy and Astrophysics Notes PDF for any university student of BCA, MCA, B.Sc, B.Tech, M.Tech branch to enhance more knowledge about the subject and to score better marks in the exam. Students can easily make use of all these Astronomy and Astrophysics Notes PDF by downloading them.

**Topics in our Astronomy and Astrophysics Notes PDF**

The topics we will cover in these **Astronomy and Astrophysics Notes PDF** will be taken from the following list:

**Introduction to Astronomy and Astronomical Scales: **Overview of the Night Sky, Diurnal, and Yearly motions of the Sun, Stars, and Constellations. Size, Mass, Density, and Temperature of Astronomical Objects. Basic concepts of Positional Astronomy: Celestial Sphere, Geometry of a Sphere, Spherical Triangle, Astronomical Coordinate Systems, Horizon System, Equatorial System, Conversion of Coordinates. Rising and Setting Times, Measurement of Time, Side real Time, Apparent Solar Time, Mean Solar Time, Equation of Time, Astronomical Time Systems (LMT, UT, UTC).

**Basic Parameters of Stars: **Determination of Distance by Parallax Method; Proper Motion, Brightness, Radiant Flux, and Luminosity, Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Scales, Distance Modulus, Extinction, Determination of Temperature and Radius of a star; Stellar Spectra, Atomic Spectra Revisited, Introduction to Boltzman and Saha Equations, Balmer Lines of H, H and K lines of Ca, Spectral Types and Their Temperature Dependence, Black Body Approximation, Luminosity Classification, H R Diagram, and Relations Between Stellar Parameters.

**Observational Tools and Physical Principles: **Observing through the atmosphere (Scintillation, Seeing, Atmospheric Windows, and Extinction) Basic Optical Definitions for Telescopes: Magnification, Light Gathering Power, Limiting magnitude, Resolving Power, Diffraction Limit. Optical and Radio Telescopes, Current Indian Observatories. Virial theorem for N particle systems, applications in astrophysics. Systems in Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Equations for Hydrostatic equilibrium, Mean Molecular Weight of stellar gas, Stellar Energy Sources.

**Sun and the Milky Way: **Solar Parameters, Sun’s Internal Structure, Solar Photosphere, Solar Atmosphere, Chromosphere. Corona, Solar Activity, Solar Magneto-Hydrodynamics, Alfven’s Theorem. Basic Structure and Properties of the Milky Way, Nature of rotation of the Milky Way (Differential rotation of the Galaxy and Oort Constants, Rotation Curve of the Galaxy and the Dark Matter, Nature of the Spiral Arms), Properties of and Around the Galactic Nucleus.

**Cosmology: **Standard Candles ( Cepheids and SNe Type1a), Cosmic Distance Ladder, Olbers Paradox, Hubble Expansion, Cosmological Principle, Newtonian Cosmology and Friedmann Models.

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**Astronomy and Astrophysics Reference Books List**

We have listed the best Astronomy and Astrophysics Reference Books that can help in your Astronomy and Astrophysics exam preparation:

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