Physics of Earth Notes
Topics in our Physics of Earth Notes PDF
In these “Physics of Earth Notes PDF”, you will study the origin of universe and role of earth in the solar system.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
The Earth and the Universe: (a) Origin of universe, creation of elements and earth. A Holistic understanding of our dynamic planet through Astronomy, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography. Introduction to various branches of Earth Sciences. (b) General characteristics and origin of the Universe. The Big Bang Theory. Age of the universe and Hubble constant. Formation of Galaxies. The Milky Way galaxy, Nebular Theory, solar system, Earth’s orbit and spin, the Moon’s orbit and spin. The terrestrial and Jovian planets. Titius-Bode law. Asteroid belt. Asteroids: origin types and examples. Meteorites & Asteroids. Earth in the Solar system ,origin, size, shape, mass, density, rotational and revolution parameters and its age. (c) Energy and particle fluxes incident on the Earth. (d) The Cosmic Microwave Background.
Structure: (a) The Solid Earth: Mass, dimensions, shape and topography, internal structure, magnetic field, geothermal energy. How do we learn about Earth’s interior ? (b) The Hydrosphere: The oceans, their extent, depth, volume, chemical composition. River
systems. (c) The Atmosphere: layers, variation of temperature with altitude, adiabatic lapse rate, variation of density and pressure with altitude, cloud formation. (d) The Cryosphere: Polar caps and ice sheets. Mountain glaciers, permafrost.
Dynamical Processes: (a) The Solid Earth: Origin of the magnetic field. Source of geothermal energy. Convection in Earth’s core and production of its magnetic field. Mechanical layering of the Earth. Introduction to geophysical methods of earth investigations. Concept of plate tectonics; types of plate movements, hotspots; sea-floor spreading and continental drift. Geodynamic elements of Earth: Mid Oceanic Ridges, trenches, transform faults and island arcs. Origin of oceans, continents, mountains and rift valleys. Earthquake and earthquake belts. Seismic waves, Richter scale, geophones. Volcanoes: types products and distribution. (b) The Hydrosphere: Ocean circulations. Oceanic current system and effect of coriolis forces. Concepts of eustasy, tend – air-sea interaction; wave erosion and beach processes. Tides. Tsunamis. (c) The Atmosphere: Atmospheric circulation. Weather and climatic changes. Earth’s heat budget. Cyclones and anti-cyclones. Climate: i. Earth’s temperature and greenhouse effect. ii. Paleoclimate and recent climate changes. iii. The Indian monsoon system. (d) Biosphere: Water cycle, Carbon cycle. The role of cycles in maintaining a steady state.
Stratigraphy: Introduction and types, Standard stratigraphic time scale and introduction to the concept of time in geological studies. Time line of major geological and biological events. Introduction to geochronological methods and their application in geological studies. Radiometric dating: Advantages & disadvantages of various isotopes. History of development of concepts of uniformitarianism, catastrophism and neptunism. Various laws of stratigraphy. Introduction to the geology and geomorphology of Indian subcontinent. Origin of life on Earth, Role of the biosphere in shaping the environment. Future of evolution of the, Earth and solar system: Death of the Earth (Probable causes).
Disturbing the Earth – Contemporary dilemmas (a) Human population growth. (b) Atmosphere: Green house gas emissions, climate change, air pollution. (c) Hydrosphere: Fresh water depletion. (d) Geosphere: Chemical effluents, nuclear waste. (e) Biosphere: Biodiversity loss. Deforestation. Robustness and fragility of ecosystems.
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