Computer Networks Handwritten Notes
What is Data Communication ?
When we communicate, we are sharing information. This sharing can be local or remote. Between individuals, local communication usually occurs face to face, while remote communication takes place over distance.
What is Computer Networks ?
A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so as to be able to exchange data. Each of the devices on the network can be thought of as a node and each node has a unique address.
Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers to work with, but not for humans to remember.
Some networks also provide names that humans can more easily remember than numbers.
Example: www.tutorialsduniya.com, corresponding to the above numeric address.
Topics in our studying in our Computer Networks Handwritten Lecture Notes PDF
In these “Computer Networks Handwritten Lecture Notes PDF”, we will study the concepts of data communication and computer networks which comprises of the study of the standard models for the layered protocol architecture to communicate between autonomous computers in a network and also the main features and issues of communication protocols for different layers.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
Introduction: Types of computer networks, Internet, Intranet, Network topologies, Network classifications.
Network Architecture Models: Layered architecture approach, OSI Reference Model, TCP/IP Reference Model.
Physical Layer: Analog signal, digital signal, digital modulation techniques (ASK, PSK, QAM), encoding techniques, maximum data rate of a channel, transmission media (guided transmission media, wireless transmission, satellite communication), multiplexing (frequency division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, wavelength division multiplexing).
Data Link MAC Layer: Data link layer services, error-detection and correction techniques, error recovery protocols (stop and wait, go back n, selective repeat), multiple access protocols, (TDMA/FDP, CDMA/FDD/CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA), Datalink and MAC addressing, Ethernet, data link layer switching, point-to-point protocol.
Network layer: Networks and Inter networks, virtual circuits and datagrams, addressing, sub netting, Routing- (Distance vector and link state routing), Network Layer Protocols- (ARP, IPV4, ICMP, IPV6).
Transport and Application Layer: Process to process Delivery- (client server paradigm, connectionless versus connection oriented service, reliable versus unreliable); User Datagram Protocols, TCP/IP protocol, Flow Control.
Protocols: FTP (File Transfer protocol), SMTP (Simple, Mail Transfer Protocol), Telnet and remote login protocol, WWW (World Wide Web), HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer protocol), Uniform Resource Locator, HTML and forms.