Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Oxygen Containing Functional Groups Notes
Topics in our Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Oxygen Containing Functional Groups Notes PDF
In these “Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Oxygen Containing Functional Groups Notes PDF”, you will study the organic functional groups, which include halogenated hydrocarbons and oxygen containing functional groups and their reactivity patterns. The detailed reactions mechanistic pathways for each functional group will be discussed to unravel the spectrum of organic chemistry and the extent of organic transformations.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
Chemistry of Halogenated Hydrocarbons: Alkyl halides: Methods of preparation and properties, nucleophilic substitution reactions – SN1, SN2 and SNi mechanisms with stereochemical aspects and effect of solvent; nucleophilic substitution vs. elimination. Aryl halides: Preparation (including preparation from diazonium salts) and properties, nucleophilic aromatic substitution; SNAr, Benzyne mechanism. Relative reactivity of alkyl, allyl, benzyl, vinyl and aryl halides towards nucleophilic substitution reactions. Organometallic compounds of Mg (Grignard reagent) – Use in synthesis of organic compounds.
Alcohol, Phenol, Ether and Epoxides: Alcohols: preparation, properties and relative reactivity of 1°, 2°, 3° alcohols, Bouveault–Blanc Reduction;Oxidation of diols by periodic acid and lead tetraacetate, Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement. Phenols: Preparation and properties; Acidity and affecting factors, Ring substitutionreactions, Reimer– Tiemann and Kolbe’s–Schmidt Reactions, Fries and Claisen rearrangements and their mechanism. Ethers and Epoxides: Preparation and reactions with acids. Reactions of epoxides with alcohols, ammonia and LiAlH4.
Carbonyl Compounds: Structure, reactivity, preparation and properties; Nucleophilic additions, Nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions with ammonia derivatives with mechanism. Mechanisms of Aldol and Benzoin condensation, Knoevenagel condensation, Claisen-Schmidt, Perkin, Cannizzaro and Wittig reaction, Beckmann and Benzil-Benzilic acid rearrangements, haloform reaction and Baeyer Villiger oxidation, α-substitution reactions, oxidations and reductions (Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, LiAlH4, NaBH4, MPV, PDC) Addition reactions of α, β- unsaturated carbonyl compounds: Michael addition. Active methylene compounds: Keto-enol tautomerism. Preparation and synthetic applications of diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate.
Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: General methods of preparation, physical properties and reactions of monocarboxylic acids, effect of substituents on acidic strength. Typical reactions of dicarboxylic acids, hydroxy acids and unsaturated acids. Preparation and reactions of acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters and amides; Comparative study of nucleophilic substitution at acyl group-Mechanism of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis of esters, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann and Reformatsky reactions, Hoffmann-bromamide degradation and Curtius rearrangement.
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