Chemical Thermodynamics and its Applications Notes

### Topics in our Chemical Thermodynamics and its Applications Notes PDF

In these “Chemical Thermodynamics and its Applications Notes PDF”, you will study the thermodynamic concepts, terminology, properties of thermodynamic systems, laws of thermodynamics and their correlation with other branches of physical chemistry and make them able to apply thermodynamic concepts to the system of variable compositions, equilibrium and colligative properties.

The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:

Chemical Thermodynamics: Intensive and extensive variables; state and path functions; isolated, closed and open systems. Mathematical treatment – Exact and inexact differential, Partial derivatives, Euler’s reciprocity rule, cyclic rule.

First law: Concept of heat, Q, work, W, internal energy, U, and statement of first law; enthalpy, H, relation between heat capacities, Joule Thompson Porous Plug experiment, Nature of Joule Thompson coefficient, calculations of Q, W, ΔU and ΔH for reversible, irreversible and free expansion of gases (ideal and van der Waals) under isothermal and adiabatic conditions.

Thermochemistry: Enthalpy of reactions: standard states; enthalpy of neutralization, enthalpy of hydration, enthalpy of formation and enthalpy of combustion and its applications, bond dissociation energy and bond enthalpy; effect of temperature (Kirchhoff’s equations) on enthalpy of reactions.

Second Law: Concept of entropy; statement of the second law of thermodynamics, Carnot cycle. Calculation of entropy change for reversible and irreversible processes (for ideal gases). Free Energy Functions: Gibbs and Helmholtz energy; variation of S, G, A with T, V, P; Free energy change and spontaneity (for ideal gases). Relation between Joule-Thomson coefficient and other thermodynamic parameters; inversion temperature; Gibbs-Helmholtz equation; Maxwell relations; thermodynamic equation of state.

Third Law: Statement of third law, unattainability of absolute zero, calculation of absolute entropy of molecules, concept of residual entropy, calculation of absolute entropy of solid, liquid and gases.

Systems of Variable Composition: Partial molar quantities, dependence of thermodynamic parameters on composition; Gibbs Duhem equation, chemical potential of ideal mixtures, Change in thermodynamic functions on mixing of ideal gases.

Chemical Equilibrium: Criteria of thermodynamic equilibrium, degree of advancement of reaction, Chemical equilibria in ideal gases, Thermodynamic derivation of relation between Gibbs free energy of a reaction and reaction quotient, Equilibrium constants and their dependence on temperature, pressure and concentration, Le Chatelier’s Principle (Quantitative treatment), Free energy of mixing and spontaneity, Equilibrium between ideal gases and a pure condensed phase.

Solutions and Colligative Properties: Dilute solutions; lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, Henry’s law. Thermodynamic basis of the colligative properties – lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of Boiling Point, Depression of Freezing point and Osmotic pressure and derivation of expressions for these using chemical potential. Application of colligative properties in calculating molar masses of normal, dissociated and associated solutes in solutions. Concept of activity and activity coefficients.  