## Phase Equilibrium Notes PDF

Free Phase Equilibrium notes pdf are provided here for Phase Equilibrium students so that they can prepare and score high marks in their Phase Equilibrium exam.

In these free Phase Equilibrium notes pdf, we will study the phase, co-existence of phases, phase diagram, CST and distribution law and concepts of electrochemical cells, electrode potential, electrochemical series and learn about the surface phenomenon, adsorption isotherms, BET Equation.

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Topics in our Phase Equilibrium Notes PDF

The topics we will cover in these phase equilibrium notes pdf will be taken from the following list:

Phase Equilibria: Concept of phases, components and degrees of freedom, derivation of Gibbs Phase Rule for non-reactive and reactive systems; Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its applications to solid-liquid, liquid-vapour and solid-vapour equilibria, phase diagram for one component systems (H2O and S), with applications. A comparison between the phase diagram of CO2 and H2O. Phase diagrams for systems of solid-liquid equilibria involving eutectic, congruent and incongruent melting points. Binary solutions: Gibbs-Duhem-Margules equation, its derivation and applications to fractional distillation of binary miscible liquids (ideal and non-ideal), azeotropes, lever rule, partial miscibility of liquids, CST, miscible pairs, steam distillation. Nernst distribution law: its derivation and applications.

Electrochemical Cells: Rules of oxidation/reduction of ions based on half-cell potentials, applications of electrolysis in metallurgy and industry. Chemical cells, reversible and irreversible cells with examples. Electromotive force of a cell and its measurement, Nernst equation; Standard electrode (reduction) potential and its application to different kinds of half-cells. Application of EMF measurements in determining (i) free energy, enthalpy and entropy of a cell reaction, (ii) equilibrium constants, and (iii) pH values, using hydrogen, quinone-hydroquinone, glass and SbO/Sb2O3 electrodes. Concentration cells with and without transference, liquid junction potential; determination of activity coefficients and transference numbers. Qualitative discussion of potentiometric titrations (acid-base, redox, precipitation).

Surface chemistry: Physical adsorption, chemisorption, adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich). Nature of adsorbed state. Qualitative discussion of BET.

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