Organic Chemistry Basics and Hydrocarbons Notes
Topics in our Organic Chemistry Basics and Hydrocarbons Notes PDF
In these “Organic Chemistry Basics and Hydrocarbons Notes PDF”, you will study the recapitulation of fundamentals of organic chemistry and the introduction of a new concept of visualizing the organic molecules in a three-dimensional space. To establish the applications of these concepts, the functional groups- alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and aromatic hydrocarbons are introduced. The constitution of the course strongly aids in the paramount learning of the concepts and their applications.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
Hybridisation: Shapes of molecules.
Electronic displacements and their applications: Inductive, electromeric, resonance and mesomeric effects and hyperconjugation. Concept of dipole moment, acidity and basicity and pKa values. Homolytic and heterolytic fissions with suitable examples. Types, shape and relative stability of carbocations, carbanions, carbenes and free radicals. Weaker forces like van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding Electrophiles and nucleophiles, and introduction to types of organic reactions: addition, elimination and substitution reactions.
Stereochemistry: Stereoisomerism: Optical activity and optical isomerism, asymmetry, chirality, enantiomers, diastereomers. specific rotation; Configuration and projection formulae: Newmann, Sawhorse, Fischer and their interconversion. Chirality in molecules with one and two stereocentres; meso configuration. Racemic mixture and their resolution. Relative and absolute configuration: D/L and R/S designations. Geometrical isomerism: cis-trans, syn-anti and E/Z notations using CIP rules.
Carbon-Carbon sigma bonds (Alkanes and Cycloalkanes): General methods of preparation- Wurtz and Wurtz Fittig reaction, Corey House synthesis, physical and chemical properties of alkanes, Free radical substitutions; Halogenation, concept of relative reactivity v/s selectivity. Conformational analysis of alkanes (Conformations, relative stability and energy diagrams of Ethane, Propane and butane).General molecular formulae of cycloalkanes and relative stability, Baeyer strain theory, Cyclohexane conformations with energy diagram, Axial and equatorial positions. Conformations of monosubstituted cyclohexanes.
Carbon-Carbon pi Bonds (Alkenes and Alkynes): Structure and isomerism.General methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties. Mechanism, of E1, E2, E1cb reactions, Saytzeff and Hoffmann eliminations, Electrophilic Additions, mechanism with suitable examples, (Markownikoff/Antimarkownikoff addition), syn and anti-addition; addition of H2, X2, oxymercuration-demercuration, hydroboration-oxidation, ozonolysis, hydroxylation, Diels Alder reaction, 1,2-and 1,4-addition reactions in conjugated dienes. Mechanism of allylic and benzylic bromination in propene, 1-butene, toluene,ethyl benzene. Reactions of alkynes; acidity, electrophilic and nucleophilic additions, hydration to form carbonylcompounds, Alkylation of terminal alkynes.
Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Concept of Aromaticity, Huckel’s rule, aromatic character of arenes, cyclic carbocations and carbanions with suitable examplesand heterocyclic compoundswith suitable examples. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel Crafts alkylation/ acylation with their mechanism. Directing effects of groups in electrophilic substitution.
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