In these “Microprocessors Notes PDF”, you will study internal architecture, programming model of Intel Microprocessors (8086 – Pentium) and assembly language programming using an assembler. Students will also learn interfacing of memory and I/O devices with microprocessor.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
Microprocessor architecture: Internal architecture, Programming Model, Addressing modes, Data movement instructions.
Microprocessor programming: Register Organization, instruction formats, Program control instructions, assembly language
Interfacing: Bus timings, Memory address decoding, cache memory and cache controllers, I/O interface, keyboard, timer, Interrupt controller, DMA controller, video controllers, communication interfaces.
Data transfer schemes: Synchronous data transfer, asynchronous data transfer, interrupt driven data transfer, DMA mode data transfer.
A microprocessor is an electronic component that is used by a computer to do its work. It is a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit chip containing millions of very small components including transistors, resistors, and diodes that work together. Microprocessor consists of an ALU, register array, and a control unit. ALU performs arithmetical and logical operations on the data received from the memory or an input device. Register array consists of registers identified by letters like B, C, D, E, H, L and accumulator. The control unit controls the flow of data and instructions within the computer.
Instruction Set: It is the set of instructions that the microprocessor can understand.
Bandwidth: It is the number of bits processed in a single instruction.
Clock Speed: It determines the number of operations per second the processor can perform. It is expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).It is also known as Clock Rate.
Word Length: It depends upon the width of internal data bus, registers, ALU, etc. An 8-bit microprocessor can process 8-bit data at a time. The word length ranges from 4 bits to 64 bits depending upon the type of the microcomputer.
Data Types: The microprocessor has multiple data type formats like binary, BCD, ASCII, signed and unsigned numbers.
What are the features of Microprocessors ?
Cost-effective: The microprocessor chips are available at low prices and results its low cost. Size: The microprocessor is of small size chip, hence is portable. Low Power Consumption: Microprocessors are manufactured by using metal-oxide semiconductor technology, which has low power consumption. Versatility: The microprocessors are versatile as we can use the same chip in a number of applications by configuring the software program. Reliability: The failure rate of an IC in microprocessors is very low, hence it is reliable.
What is Assembly Language ?
The language in which the mnemonics (short -hand form of instructions) are used to write a program is called assembly language. The manufacturers of microprocessor give the mnemonics.
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