In these “BiomoleculesNotes PDF”, you will study the fascinating chemistry of some biomolecules,i.e., amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids andnucleic acidsthat work within biological systems. It aims to build the concept of metabolism by the study of chemistry and energetics of biological system.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
Nucleic Acids: Structure of components of nucleic acids: Bases, Sugars, Nucleosides and Nucleotides. Nomenclature of nucleosides and nucleotides, structure of polynucleotides (DNA and RNA), concept of DNA duplex formation and its characterization. Biological roles of DNA and RNA. Concept of heredity:Genetic Code, Replication, Transcription and Translation.
Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins: Amino acids, Peptides and their classification. α-Amino Acids – Synthesis, ionic properties and reactions. Zwitterions, pKa values, isoelectric point and electrophoresis; Study of peptides: determination of their primary structure-end group analysis. Synthesis of peptides using N-protecting, C-protecting and C activating groups, Solid-phase synthesis; primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins, Denaturation of proteins.
Enzymes: Introduction, classification and characteristics of enzymes. Salient features of active site of enzymes. Mechanism of enzyme action (taking chymotrypsin as an example), factors affecting enzyme action, coenzymes and cofactors (NAD,FAD), specificity of enzyme action (including stereospecificity), enzyme inhibitors and their importance.
Carbohydrates and lipids: Occurrence, classification and their biological importance. Monosaccharides: Constitution and absolute configuration of glucose and fructose, epimers and anomers, mutarotation, determination of ring size of glucose and fructose, Haworth projection and conformational structures; Interconversion of aldoses and ketoses; Killiani-Fischer synthesis and Ruff degradation; Disaccharides – Structure elucidation of maltose, lactose and sucrose. Polysaccharides – Elementary treatment of starch, cellulose and glycogen. Introduction to oils and fats; common fatty acids present in oils and fats, Hydrogenation of fats and oils, Saponification value, acid value, iodine number. Reversion and rancidity.
Concept of Energy in Biosystems: Introduction to metabolism (catabolism, anabolism). ATP: The universal currency of cellular energy, ATP hydrolysis and free energy change. Agents for transfer of electrons in biological redox systems: NAD+ , FAD. Outline of catabolic pathways of carbohydrate-glycolysis, fermentation, Krebs cycle. Caloric value of food, standard caloric content of food types.
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