Atomic Structure & Chemical Bonding Notes
Topics in our Atomic Structure & Chemical Bonding Notes PDF
In these “Atomic Structure & Chemical Bonding Notes PDF”, you will study the atom, which is a necessary pre-requisite in understanding the nature of chemical bonding in compounds. It provides basic knowledge about ionic, covalent and metallic bonding and explains that chemical bonding is best regarded as a continuum between the three cases. It discusses the periodicity in properties with reference to the s and p block, which is necessary in understanding their group chemistry.
The topics we will cover will be taken from the following list:
Atomic Structure: Recapitulation of Bohr’s theory, its limitations and atomic spectrum of hydrogen atom. Wave mechanics: de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and its significance. Schrödinger’s wave equation, significance of ψ and ψ2 . Quantum mechanical treatment of H- atom, Quantum numbers and their significance. Normalized and orthogonal wave functions. Sign of wave functions. Radial and angular wave functions for hydrogen atom. Radial and angular distribution curves. Shapes of s, p, and d orbitals, Relative energies of orbitals. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle, Hund’s rule of maximum spin multiplicity, Aufbau principle and its limitations.
Periodicity of Elements: Brief discussion of the following properties of the elements, with reference to s- & p-block and the trends shown: (a) Effective nuclear charge, shielding or screening effect, Slater rules, variation of effective nuclear charge in periodic table. (b) Atomic and ionic radii (c) Ionization enthalpy, Successive ionization enthalpies and factors affecting ionization enthalpy and trends in groups and periods. (d) Electron gain enthalpy and trends in groups and periods. (e) Electronegativity, Pauling’s/ Allred Rochow’s scales. Variation of electronegativity with bond order, partial charge, hybridization, group electronegativity.
Ionic bond: General characteristics, types of ions, size effects, radius ratio rule and its limitations. Packing of ions in crystals. Born-Landé equation with derivation and importance of Kapustinskii expression for lattice energy. Madelung constant, Born-Haber cycle and its application, Solvation energy. Covalent character in ionic compounds, polarizing power and polarizability. Fajan’s rules and consequences of polarization.
Covalent bond: Valence Bond theory (Heitler-London approach). Energetics of hybridization, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals. Bent’s rule, Resonance and resonance energy. Ionic character in covalent compounds: Bond moment and dipole moment. Percentage ionic character from dipole moment and electronegativity difference. Molecular orbital theory. Molecular orbital diagrams of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules N2, O2, C2, B2, F2, CO, NO, and their ions; HCl (idea of s-p mixing and orbital interaction to be given).
VSEPR Theory: Lewis structure, Valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR), shapes of the following simple molecules and ions containing lone pairs and bond pairs of electrons: H2O, NH3, PCl3, PCl5, SF6, ClF3, I3- , BrF2+ , PCl6- ,ICl2- ICl4- , and SO4 2-.
Metallic Bond: Qualitative idea of valence bond and band theories. Semiconductors and insulators, defects in solids.
Weak Chemical Forces: van der Waals forces, ion-dipole forces, dipole-dipole interactions, induced dipole interaction, Hydrogen bonding (theories of hydrogen bonding, valence bond treatment). Effects of weak chemical forces, melting and boiling points, solubility, energetics of dissolution process.
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